Sea Ice Future References


  • Environment Canada. (2012). Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis. Retrieved from Climate Modelling and Analysis:
  • IPCC, 2013: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovern- mental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 1535 pp.
  • NSIDC. (2013).The Arctic Institute . (2012). The Future of Arctic Shipping . Retrieved from The Arctic Institute: Center for Circumpolar Security Studies :

Ice Break-Up

  • Arntsen, A. E., A. J. Song, D. K. Perovich, and J. A. Richter-Menge (2015), Observations of the summer breakup of an Arctic sea ice cover, Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 8057–8063, doi:10.100 2/2015GL065224
  • Asplin, M. G., Galley, R., Barber, D., & Prinsenberg, S. (2012). Fracture of summer perennial sea ice by ocean swell as a result of Arctic storms . Journal of Geophysical Research .

Ocean Acidification

  • Hoegh-Guldberg, O., Mumby, P., Hooten, A., Steneck, R., Greenfield, P., Gomez, E., et al. (2007). Coral Reefs under Rapid Climate Change and Ocean Acidification. Science , 1737-1742.
  • Yamamoto-Kawai, M., McLaughlin, F., Carmack, E., Nishino, S., & Shimada, K. (2009). Aragonite Undersaturation in the Arctic Ocean: Effects of Ocean Acidification and Sea Ice Melt. Science .

Future Challenges

  • Canada, Foreign Affairs and International Trade. (2013). The Arctic Council. Retrieved from Foreign Policy: Canada and the Arctic:
  • Carnaghan, M., & Goody, A. (2006). Canadian Arctic Sovereignty . Library of Parliament .
  • Haas, C., and S. E. L. Howell (2015), Ice thickness in the Northwest Passage, Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, doi:10.1002/ 2015GL065704.
  • Laliberté, F., S. E. L. Howell, and P. J. Kushner (2016), Regional variability of a projected sea ice-free Arctic during the summer months, Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, doi:10.1002/2015GL066855
  • Maier, W., Gerland, S., Granskog, M., & Key, J. (2011). Sea Ice. In SWIPA, Snow, Water, Ice and Permafrost in the Arctic.
  • Northwest Territories. (2015). Trends in shipping in the Northwest Passage and the Beaufort Sea. Retrieved from State of the Environment:
  • Parry, W. (2012). What Sea-Ice Loss means for Development in the Arctic. Live Science .
  • Arctic Shipping. (2011) World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved from WWF Canada: What We Do: Arctic:
Last updated on 06/11/2017