Sea Ice Overview References


  • Cogley, J., Hock, R., Rasmussen, L., Arendt, A., Bauder, A., Braithwaite, R., et al. (2011). Glossary of Glacier Mass Balance and Related Terms. (UNESCO-IHP, Ed.) IHP-VII Technical Documents in Hydrology No. 86 .


  • Environment Canada. (2016). Ice Glossary. Retrieved from Weather and Meteorology:
  • IPCC, 2013: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovern- mental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 1535 pp.
  • NSIDC. (2013). All About Sea Ice. Retrieved from National Snow & Ice Data Center:
  • Scott, M., & Simmon, R. (2009). Sea Ice. Retrieved from NASA Earth Observatory:

Energy Flux

  • Betts, A. K. (2013). The Climate Energy Balance of the Earth. Retrieved from Alan Betts Atmospheric Research :
  • NSIDC. (2013). All About Sea Ice. Retrieved from National Snow & Ice Data Center:
  • The Encyclopedia of the Earth. (2013). Albedo. Retrieved from Albedo:
  • The Encyclopedia of the Earth. (2012). Sea Ice. Retrieved from Oceans & Seas :


  • AMAP, 1998. AMAP Assessment Report: Arctic Pollution Issues. Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), Oslo, Norway. xii+859 pp.
  • Rigor, I. G., J. M. Wallace, and R. L. Colony (2002), Response of sea ice to the Arctic oscillation , J. Clim., 15, 2648-2663.
  • Scheltinga, A. D., Myers, P., & Pietrzak, J. (2010). A finite element sea ice model of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Ocean Dynamics , 1539-1558.


  • Arctic Ocean Diversity . (2009). Copepods. Retrieved from Species Water Column :
  • Arctic Ocean Diversity . (2010). Mysids: Opossum Shrimp. Retrieved from Species Sea Bottom:
  • Friedman, W. R. (2006). Environmental Adaptions of the Beluga Whale (Delphinapterus leucas). Cognitive Science .
  • Gradinger, R. R., & Bluhm, B. A. (2004). In-situ obersvations on the distribution and behavior of amphipods and Arctic Cod (Boreogadus saida) under the sea ice of the High Arctic Canada Basin. Polar Biology , 595-603
  • Heide-Jorgensen, M., Laidre, K., Borchers, D., Marques, T., Stern, H., & Simon, M. (2009). The effect of sea-ice loss on beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in West Greenland. Polar Research .
  • Higdon, J. W., & Ferguson, S. H. (2009). Loss of Arctic sea ice causing punctuated change in sightings of killer whales (Orcinus orca) over the past century. Ecological Adaptions .
  • Igesund, A. Ice-dependent Ecosystem . ICE Ecosystems . Norwegian Polar Institute .
  • IUCN Red List. (2012). Larus Hyperboreus. Retrieved from The IUNC Red List of Threatened Species :
  • Jean-Louis Etienne Explorateur. (2011). Arctic Plankton. Retrieved 2013, from The Ocean and Marine Life :
  • Leu, E., Wiktor, J., Soreide, J., Berge, J., & Falk-Petersen, S. (2010). Increased irradiance reduces food quality of sea ice algae. Marine Ecology Progress Series , 49-60.
  • National Geographic. (2013). Krill. Retrieved 2013, from National Geographic Animals:
  • NOAA Fisheries. (2013). Bearded Seal. Retrieved from NOAA Office of Protected Resources :
  • Norwegian Polar Institute . (2008). Polar Bear Factsheet. Retrieved from Polar Environmental Centre :
  • Norwegian Polar Institute . (2013). ICE Ecosystems and Research. Retrieved from Research and Management :
  • NSIDC. (2013). Wildlife: Seals. Retrieved 2013, from All About Sea Ice :
  • U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. (2006). Alaska Seabird Information Series: Glaucous Gull. Alaska: Migratory Bird Management.
  • USGS . (2013). Pacific Walrus Response to Arctic Sea Ice Losses. Retrieved from US Geological Survey Publications:
  • WWF. (2013). Polar Bear. Retrieved from Species :
Last updated on 06/11/2017