Snow References


  • Fierz, C., Armstrong, R.L., Durand, Y., Etchevers, P., Greene, E., McClung, D.M., Nishimura, K., Satyawali, P.K. and Sokratov, S.A. 2009. The International Classification for Seasonal Snow on the Ground. IHP-VII Technical Documents in Hydrology N°83, IACS Contribution N°1, UNESCO-IHP, Paris.


  • Brown, R.D. and B. Brasnett, (2010). Canadian Meteorological Centre (CMC) Daily Snow Depth Analysis Data, updated annually. © Environment Canada, 2010. Boulder, Colorado USA: National Snow and Ice Data Center.
  • Callaghan, T.V., M. Johansson, R.D. Brown, P. Ya. Groisman, N. Labba, V. Radionov, R.G. Barry, O.N. Bulygina, R.L.H. Essery, D.M. Frolov, V.N. Golubev, T.C. Grenfell, M.N. Petrushina, V.N. Razuvaev, D.A. Robinson, P. Romanov, D. Shindell, A.B. Shmakin, S.A. Sokratov, S. Warren, D. Yang, 2011: The Changing Face of Arctic Snow Cover: A Synthesis of Observed and Projected Changes. AMBIO (2011) 40:17–31 DOI 10.1007/s13280-011-0212-y
  • Callaghan, T. V., & Johansson, M. (2011). Changing Snow Cover and its Impacts. SWIPA .
  • DeBeer, C.M., Wheater, H.S., Carey, S.K., Chun, K.P. (2016). Recent climatic, cryospheric, and hydrological changes over the interior of western Canada: a review and synthesis. Hydrology and Earth System Science, 20, 1573-1598. doi:10.5194/hess-20-1573-2016
  • Helfrich, S., D. McNamara, B. Ramsay, T. Baldwin, and T. Kasheta, 2007: Enhancements to, and forthcoming developments in the Interactive Multisensor Snow and Ice Mapping System (IMS). Hydrol. Process., 21, 1576-1586.


  • NSIDC. (2013). All About Snow. Retrieved from National Snow and Ice Data Center:


  • IUCN. (2012). Ovibos Muschatus. Retrieved from The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species :
  • Madsen, J., Tamstorf, M., Klaassen, M., Eide, N., Glahder, C., Riget, F., et al. (2007). Effects of snow cover of the timing and success of reproduction in high-Arctic pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus. Polar Biology .
  • National Geographic . (2013). Animals: Mammals. Retrieved from Arctic Fox:
  • NSIDC. (2013). Snow and Animals . Retrieved from All About Snow:
  • Vincent, W. F., Callaghan, T., Dahl-Jensen, D., Johansson, M., Kovacs, K., Michel, C., et al. (2012). Ecological Implications of Changes in the Arctic Cryosphere. Ambio , 87-99.

Energy Flux

  • Dery, S.J. and R.D. Brown, 2007: Recent Northern Hemisphere snow cover extent trends and implications for the snow-albedo feedback. Geophys. Res. Letters, 34, L22504, doi:10.1029/2007GL031474, 2007.
  • Kim, Y., Kimball, J.S., Robinson, D.A., Derksen, C. (2015) New satellite climate data records indicate strong coupling between recent frozen season changes and snow cover over high northern latitudes. Environmental Research Letters, doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/10/8/084004
  • Flanner, M.G., K.M. Shell, M. Barlage, D.K. Perovich and M.A. Tschudi, 2011: Radiative forcing and albedo feedback from the Northern Hemisphere cryosphere between 1979 and 2008. Nature Geoscience, 4, 151-155, doi:10.1038/ngeo1062
  • Groisman, P. Ya, T.R. Karl, and R.W. Knight, 1994: Changes of snow cover, temperature and radiative heat balance over the Northern Hemisphere. J. Climate, 7, 1633-1656.
  • Screen, J.A. and I. Simmonds, 2011: Declining summer snowfall in the Arctic: causes, impacts and feedbacks. Climate Dynamics, doi: 10.1007/s00382-011-1105-2.
Last updated on 06/11/2017